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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic condition in which the body’s cells do not respond properly to insulin. Most often, this leads to increased blood glucose (sugar) levels, called hyperglycaemia.


  • T2DM is primarily caused due to receptors on the cells in the body (insulin receptors), which fail to respond to the action of insulin. the role of insulin is to move the sugar from food, into various cells of the body. When resistance to insulin occurs, the body is required to release more and more insulin in order maintain adequate blood glucose (sugar) levels.

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Signs & Symptoms

  • Excessive thirst

  • Excessive hunger / increased appetite

  • Frequent urination

  • Fatigue, nausea, blurred vision

  • Tingling or losing the feeling in the feet

Differential Diagnosis

  • Type 1 Diabetes

  • Peripheral neuropathy

PROmotion Assessment and outcome measures

  • Subjective examination including a family history check of T2DM and a thorough check of any associated symptoms that may be experienced.

  • A verbal check of the general diet in order to ascertain the foods that are most commonly consumed

  • Weight check – this is beneficial as it provides a visual number that can be referenced back to at various stages of the exercise plan

  • Waist to hip ratio – This is a measurement and comparison of the circumference of the waist and hips where a ratio is determined as a guide to gauge if someone is overweight or obese

  • Confirmation of diagnoisis by external to PROmotion specialist

How to Manage

  • Research shows that Type 2 Diabetes can be prevented or delayed in up to 50% of cases by maintaining a healthy weight, being physically active and following a healthy eating plan. The Exercise Physiologists at PROmotion run a comprehensive fully funded medicare (speak to your GP about your qualification for the program) 4 week program centred around education and exercise for patients with T2DM.

  • At PROmotion we can provide ongoing supervised or self-managed exercise programs tailored for Type 2 Diabetes

  • We also have an onsite dietician who can provide further diet and meal planning and a podiatrist for any issues with your feet.


  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Fact Sheet: general information and national estimates of diabetes in the United States, 2007. Atlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention2008. Available from: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  2. ACSM's Exercise Management for Persons with Chronic Diseases and Disabilities-3rd Edition. By American College of Sports Medicine, J. Larry Durstine, Geoffrey Moore, Patricia Painter, Scott Roberts

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